The increasing day-to-day incidents of a man-made disaster such as fires in buildings, collapsing due to constructions or terrorist attacks have led to taking authentic action related to evacuation of High rise buildings. High rise buildings are “Skyscrapers”, “A building with more than 40 storeys”. As per the National Building code of India initiated in 2005, the building that is heightened for 15m or above is considered a High Rise Building.
During the construction of the building, the evacuation pattern in High Rise Building should be taken into consideration. In different countries, exit requirements have been stated in authoritarian codes. Most of the emergency like building fires are included under the evacuation provisions of buildings. In India, cities like Ahmedabad, Surat, Navi Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kochi, Kolkata witness more than 5000 high-rise buildings.
It is the paramount responsibility of every property manager to prepare an emergency escape plan for a high-rise building. Whether there are 100 or 100 occupants, the life of every one person is important. As per the nature of the emergency, many evacuation strategies have been implied. The listed strategies below can determine which High Rise Evacuation Plan to use.
Shield in Place
The National Fire Protection Association had put a handbook regarding Fire Protection guidelines, as per survey and experience “It is safer for occupants to remain in place within protected zones than to evacuate the building”. This method is used when there is a chemical or biological incident or explosion that has occurred outside the building.
Delay in Evacuation
The delay in evacuation usually occurs when there is more storey in a building and the incident is worse. As defined in the handbook “it is better to take temporary holding places instead of trying to exit. Stay safe near the fire area or take a guide from the emergency responder’s assistance to stay safe.
Evacuation for differently-abled individuals
Special considerations are taken for the individuals who have temporary or permanent disabilities. It includes the person on a wheelchair, canes or crutches, walkers, a person with hearing and visibility impairment, pregnant lady, elderly person, child, mental disorders or person with recent surgery. A list of important information such as name, location and building with the type of disability should be on record with the management to facilitate them while making High-Rise evacuation plan.
Partial or Zoned Evacuation
It is also known as staged evacuation. This evacuation should be included in the emergency evacuation plan as it consists of the area nearer to the incident. Once the residuals of the involved floors are relocated then the decision is taken for them to evacuate. The fire department or building management to keep the residuals away from the affected zone assures it.
This is also termed phased evacuation. The evacuation of High-Rise building often has less accommodation of elevators or staircases to exit a large number of people. According to the Council of Tall Building and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), “The total evacuation is carried out after one section of the building is evacuated”. During the total evacuation, the residuals of the highest floors are shifted to exit level and then take the load. A call button if pressed would make the people waiting for evacuation get registered. It would make them evacuated in sequence. Moreover, the disabled won’t be given priority, as everyone’s life here is important to be saved. Total evacuation is been ordered by the fire department or in an extreme emergency by building safety management as well.
Self-evacuating is made by the occupant to save themselves before the emergency responder has arrived on site. They can use stairs or elevators whatever they think safer. Residual self-evacuation should be mentioned in the evacuation of High-Rise building emergency management plan and all the residuals should be known such that provision is open for them beforehand.
Although the high-rise evacuation plans are made up to the mark there is a lack of communication with the fire safety that led to more than 20,000 deaths a year. According to the survey, phased evacuation has been the most used and appropriate method. NFPA and ASTM have recognized some of the escape devices e.g. fire escape chute, as a supplement evacuation plan. Such evacuation might be taken permanently than using staircases or elevators.Tags: Emergency Evacuation Patterns for High-Rise Buildings, emergency evacuation plan, Evacuation for differently-abled individuals, evacuation of High rise buildings, evacuation of High-Rise building, evacuation pattern in High Rise Building, Evacuation Strategies for High-Rise Building, High Rise Evacuation Plan